Dette er abstractet til det speciale jeg afsluttede min cand.mag. i Film- og Medievidenskab med i 2008.
Abstract Title: One sound says more than a thousand words.
–Proposal of a new analytical model concerning the significance of sound on the audiovisual expression of film, based on theory and interview analysis, synthesis and further development of ideas, notions and theoretical frameworks.
The subject of this thesis is film analysis, and the
need of a re-evaluation of sound's artistic significance in films of the
last three decades, especially all other sounds than dialogue and
Throughout the history of film theory, emphasis has
been on the visual and narrative
parts of film art. Only since the 1980s theory focusing on film
sound has started to emerge, and especially within the last decade the
extent of literature combining academic and practice based theory has
been expanding. The narrative functions of film music and the human
voice have mainly gained attention, leaving behind all other parts of
the soundtrack. And throughout the
entire field of film theory a framework for sound analysis has
Based on assessment and discussion of relevant theory
combined with analysis of interviews with two leading Danish sound
designers, a new analytical model concerning the significance of sound
in film is proposed. One of the central findings of the thesis is the
of dynamics in film, which should be understood as multidimensional.
Visual and sonic elements combine internally and externally in vertical
'here and now'-relations, but simultaneously
these relations form horizontal shapes which for instance can be
described as forming 'sine' or
'square waves'. It is these vertical and horizontal shapes that are
in focus of the dynamic film analysis.
The model consists of four parts, which are all
related to dynamics. The narrative-audio-visual
dynamics: how the story, the pictures and the sound combines
vertically as well as horizontally.
Rhythm and tone: both sound and picture includes rhythms which can
be uniform, juxtaposed,
and non-rhythmic, in a slow or rapid tempo. The tone of the sound
can be analyzed through
the notions 'pitch', 'timbre', 'emphasis', 'texture', 'organic vs.
mechanic', 'tonality', 'mood', 'distance' and 'spatial colouring'.
Audio-internal dynamics: how the layers within the four types of
sound (dialogue, atmospheres, effects and music) combine and
interact. And finally, density dynamics and space: how the evolving
soundtrack shifts between compact and open spaces, determined by the
amount of simultaneous layers of sound and their position within the
In order to test the proposed model in function,
Darren Aronofsky's Requiem for a
Dream (2000) is ultimately analysed through the four-step model. The
analysis shows that the
proposed model helps understanding the function and artistic
importance of sound in films.
Andreas Elkjær, University of Copenhagen, Film and Media Studies 2008.